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47

다음 영문은 심리학에서 유명한 보고서이다. 원래 이 Turnbull의 보고서는 밤부티 피그미 족에 대한 문화인류학에 속하는 보고서이다. 그 내용을 요약하면, 밀림 속에서 시야가 100피트 정도 이하인 곳에서만 살던 밤부티 피그미족의 한 사람 Kenge가, 처음으로 밀림을 떠나 멀리 있는 물소(buffalo)를 봤을 때, 처음엔 그것이 곤충인 줄 알았다가, 물소에게 다가가면서 엄청나게 커지는 것을 보고, 마술이라면서 경악했다는 것이다. 인간의 크기 관념이란 것이 타고난 것이 아니라 후천적으로 습득되는 것임을 보여준 이 보고서가 발달심리학의 주요 보고서가 된 것은 당연하다. 인류 모두는 시야가 100피트 정도 이하인 곳에서만 살면 그 시야 너머의 큰 물체를 아주 작은 물체로 알고 살 수 있는 것이다. 시간이 없어 뒷부분 일부만 번역한다.

 

Some Observations Regarding the Experiences and Behavior of the BaMbuti Pygmies

By COLIN M. TURNBULL

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

The identity of the BaMbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest in the Congo with the forest itself goes beyond their social life; they are also psychologically conditioned by their environment. This can best be illustrated by some observations that I made during a recent field trip in their country.

Distance- and Size-Perception

At the end of a particularly long and tiring period of trekking through the forest from one hunting group to another, I found myself on the eastern edge, on a high hill which had been cleared of trees by a missionary station. There was a distant view over the last few miles of forest to the Ruwenzori Mountains: in the middle of the Ituri Forest such views are seldom if ever encountered. With me was a Pygmy youth, named Kenge, who always accompanied me and served, amongst other capacities, as a valid introduction to BaMbuti groups where I was not known. Kenge was then about 22 yr. old, and had never before seen a view such as this. He asked me what the "things" before us were (referring to the mountains). "Were they hills? Were they clouds? Just what were they?" I said that they were hills bigger than any in his forest, and that if he liked we would leave the forest and go and see them and have a rest there. He was not too sure about this, but the BaMbuti are an incorrigibly curious people and he finally agreed. We drove by automobile in a violent thunderstorm which did not clear until we entered the Ishango National Park at the foot of the mountains and on the edge of Lake Edward. Up to that moment from the time we had left the edge of the forest, near Beni, visibility had been about 100 yd.

As we drove through the park the rain stopped and the sky cleared, and that rare moment came when the Ruwenzori Mountains were completely free of cloud and stood up in the late afternoon sky, their snow-capped peaks shining in the sun. I stopped the car and Kenge very unwillingly got out. His first remark was to reiterate, what he had been saying ever since the rain stopped and we could see around us, that this was a very bad country, there were no trees. Then he looked up at the mountains and was completely unable to express any ideas–quite possibly because his language had no suitable terms, being limited to the experience of a strictly forest people. The snow fascinated him, he thought it must be some kind of rock. More important, however, was the next observation.

As we turned to get back in the car, Kenge looked over the plains and down to where a herd of about a hundred buffalo were grazing some miles away. He asked me what kind of insects they were, and I told him they were buffalo, twice as big as the forest buffalo known to him. He laughed loudly and told me not to tell such stupid stories, and asked me again what kind of insects they were. He then talked to himself, for want of more intelligent company, and tried to liken the buffalo to the various beetles and ants with which he was familiar.

차로 돌아가면서 켄지는 저쪽 평원으로 시선을 돌려 몇 마일 저쪽에 100마리 쯤의 물소들이 풀을 뜯고 있는 것을 보았다. 켄지는 그 물소들이 어떤 종류의 곤충이냐고 물었고, 나는 켄지가 알고 있는 숲 속의 물소보다 2배 큰 물소들이라고 대답했다. 켄지는 크게 웃더니 그런 바보같은 얘기하지 말라고 하고 어떤 곤충이냐고 다시 물었다. 그리고 켄지는 똑똑한 친구가 없군 하고 중얼거리고는 그 물소를 자기가 익히 보아온 딱정벌레나 개미에 견주어보려고 애썼다.

He was still doing this when we got into the car and drove down to where the animals were grazing. He watched them getting larger and larger, and though he was as courageous as any Pygmy, he moved over and sat close to me and muttered that it was witchcraft. (Witchcraft, incidentally, is known to the BaMbuti only through association with the Bantu. They have no similar concept of the supernormal.) Finally when he realized that they were real buffalo he was no longer afraid, but what puzzled him still was why they had been so small, and whether they really had been small and had suddenly grown larger, or whether it had been some kind of trickery.

켄지는 그 짓을 하고 있을 때, 우리가 차를 몰고 그 동물들이 풀을 뜯고 있는 곳으로 갔다. 켄지는 그 물소들이 점점 커지는 것을 지켜보았고, 용감한 피그미인 켄지였지만 뒤로 흠칫 물러나서 내 곁에 바싹 다가와 앉더니 마술이라고 중얼거렸다. (마술은 반투족과 교류하면서 밤부티족에게 알려졌다. 밤부티족에게는 초자연적인 것에 해당하는 관념이 없었다.) 마침내 켄지는 그것들이 진짜 물소라는 것을 깨닫고 더 이상 무서워하지 않았다. 그렇지만 여전히 그에게 이해되지 않는 놀라운 일은, 왜 그것들이 그렇게 작았었는지와 그것들이 진짜로 작았었고 갑자기 커졌는지, 또는 그게 다 마술이었는지 였다.

As we came over the crest of the last low hill, Lake Edward stretched out into the distance beyond, losing itself in a hazy horizon. Kenge had never seen any expanse of water wider than the Ituririver, a few hundred yards across. This was another new experience difficult for him to comprehend. He again had the same difficulty of believing that a fishing boat a couple of miles out contained several human beings. "But, it’s just a piece of wood," he protested. I reminded him of the buffalo, and he nodded unbelievingly.

우리가 마지막 작은 언덕 꼭대기를 넘어가자, 에드워드 호수가 저 멀리 뻗어 있었고, 수평선에서 호수의 모습이 아물거렸다. 켄지는 몇 백 야드 폭의 이투리강보다 넓은 물을 본 적이 없었다. 켄지에게 이것은 또 다른 새 경험이었고 이해하기 힘든 것이었다. 그는 아까와 똑같이 2마일 떨어진 낚시배에 몇 명의 사람이 타고 있다는 것을 믿기 힘들어 했다. “그렇지만, (저건) 나무 쪼가리잖아요” 라고 항변했다. 나는 켄지에게 물소의 경우를 다시 생각해보게 했고, 켄지는 믿을 수 없다는 표정으로 고개를 끄덕였다.

Later we went all over the National Park with one of the African guides. He and Kenge conversed in KiNgwana, the lingua franca of the area, and Kenge was constantly looking out for animals and trying to guess at what they were. He was no longer afraid or unbelieving; he was trying to adapt himself, and succeeding, to a totally new environment and new experience.

The next day he asked to be taken back to the forest. He reverted to his original argument. "This is bad country, there are no trees."

다음날 켄지는 숲으로 돌아가게 해달라고 했다. 켄지는 원래 소신으로 돌아가서 이렇게 말했다. “이 곳은 나쁜 나라에요. 나무가 없잖아요.”

The inability of the BaMbuti to correlate size-constancy and distance had never even struck me as a possibility. In the forest, vision is strictly limited to a matter of yards, the greatest distance one can see, when up a tree looking down onto a camp, being a hundred feet or more below. Kenge was, however, a sophisticated and well travelled Pygmy. He had been with me a long time, had travelled along roads where he could see for as much as a quarter of a mile, and had seen aircraft and knew that they contained people. Such instances, however, were rare, and on the whole his experience of visual distance was limited to the relatively slight diminution of size in seeing a person or people walking along a road a quarter of a mile away. He had seldom seen any animal from further away than a few yards, he had never seen any boat bigger than a dug-out canoe, and that no further away than a few hundred feet.

밤부티 족이 크기 항상성과 거리를 연결시키지 못할 거라는 생각은 내게 전혀 떠오르지 않았었다. 숲에서는 시야가 몇 야드 안으로 엄격히 제한되어 있고, 가장 먼 것은 나무 위에서 캠프를 내려다 볼 때인 100피트 정도다. 그러나 켄지는 아는 게 많고 여행을 많이 다닌 피그미이다. 나와 오랫동안 같이 있었고, 길을 따라 여행했는데, 그 길에서 4분의 1마일 정도까지 볼 수 있었고, 비행기를 보았고, 비행기에 사람이 들어가 있다는 것을 알고 있었다. 그러나 그런 경우는 드물었고, 전체적으로 그의 시야 경험은 4분의 1마일 정도 떨어진 거리를 따라 걷고 있는 사람을 볼 때 비교적 작은 크기 축소의 경험 밖에 없었다. 켄지는 몇 야드 너머의 동물을 본적이 없었고, 마상이보다 큰 배를 본 적이 없었고 그것도 몇 백 야드 보다 더 너머에서 본적이 없었다.

http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/0155060678_rathus/ps/ps06.html

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